Liberal sentiment in Germany had been stirred by a desire to split up Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. The liberals
needed a repudiation of worldwide agreements by Prussia (including the 1852 Protocol which set the Danish concern on ice),
while Bismarck declared in the dietary plan that he'd not be a get together to a breach of international obligations.
So Bismarck built an contract with Austria, the avowed enemy of German unity, to proceed within the context of the 1852
Protocol. Both powers then dispatched an ultimatum to Denmark on January 16, 1864 challenging a withdrawal of the constitution
of November18 (which included Schleswig in Denmark) within 48 hours or face military action. Denmark, relying on the
support of the European Powers, rejected the ultimatum. France hesitated to become listed on England, which refused to do something alone. So the
powers did little or nothing. An effort at mediation as well failed. Denmark was subsequently reduced to submission by Prussian and
Austrian military force.
In the Treaty of Gastein (August 1865) Prussia and Austria decided how exactly to dispose of the acquired duchies. Both powers
made a decision to rule the two duchies jointly, with Austria administering Holstein and Prussia administering Schleswig. Prussia was